Order in the Court — “Okay, I’ll Take an Ale” Charles County Courthouse (18CH777)


 

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Figure 1.  Fragments from a Nottingham-type stoneware mug discovered during the excavation of the courthouse.

Quenching one’s thirst with a mug of ale or hard cider was a fitting end to a long day in court in the colonial period.  Taverns and ordinaries, often located near courthouses, were the scenes of celebrations as well sadder occasions for individuals drowning their sorrows after an unwanted legal outcome.  A fragment from a Nottingham-type English stoneware mug, recovered from the site of the first courthouse in Charles County, Maryland, was probably witness to many such revelries or disappointing endings.

plat map cut down

Figure 2.  1697 Plat map of the Charles County Courthouse and Ordinary.  Maryland State Archives.

A beautifully detailed plat map prepared in 1697 depicts the first Charles County courthouse.  Standing in a cluster of buildings, including an ordinary, several outbuildings, a fenced orchard and a set of stocks, this timber-framed structure was graced with a porch tower and glass windows.  It served as the courthouse from 1674 until its abandonment in 1727, when the location of the county court was moved to nearby Port Tobacco.  The courthouse was demolished for salvage in 1731 (King et al. 2008b) and over time, as the other buildings disappeared and people’s memories of them faded, the location of this first courthouse was lost. Continue reading

One Sweet Tale: Sugar Molds from the Shutt and Tool Sugar Refinery


The supermoon of August 2014 competes with the Domino sign on the waterfront in Baltimore.  Photograph by Jerry Jackson of the Baltimore Sun.  http://darkroom.baltimoresun.com/2014/08/     supermoon-seen-around-the-world/#1

The supermoon of August 2014 competes with the Domino sign on the waterfront in Baltimore. Photograph Jerry Jackson of the Baltimore Sun. http://darkroom.baltimoresun.com/2014/08/
supermoon-seen-around-the-world/#1

Domino Sugar, with its iconic neon sign, has been a Baltimore institution for over 90 years.  The plant was built in 1922, but Baltimore’s sugar history extends back to the late eighteenth century.  After becoming a major port of entry for raw sugar during the Revolutionary War, Baltimore took its place as a regional center for sugar production, with eleven refineries in operation by around 1825 (Williams et al. 2000; Magid 2005).  Similar refineries in Washington D.C. and Alexandria, Virginia were all established in the early nineteenth century in reaction to international trade restrictions imposed by the Napoleonic Wars (Williams et al. 2000:279).

Among the archaeological collections curated at the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab is an assemblage from the sugar processing plant owned by Augustus Shutt and John Tool, in operation between 1804 and 1829 on Green (now Exeter) Street in Baltimore (Magid 2005). Continue reading

The Maryland Jockey Club and the Introduction of Organized Thoroughbred Racing in North America


Iron stirrup recovered from the stable (1711-1730 context) at the Smith St. Leonard site (18CV91).

Iron stirrup recovered from the stable (1711-1730 context) at the Smith St. Leonard site (18CV91).

May and June bring the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing—the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes—and Maryland is proud to claim the Preakness as its own.

Horse racing has a long and storied history in Maryland and this stirrup from the Smith St. Leonard Site (18CV91), a 1711-1754 tobacco plantation in Calvert County, is representative of the state’s long history with horses. This site contains remains of the only known eighteenth-century stable (c. 1711-1730) in Maryland, from which this stirrup was recovered. Estate details from the inventory, taken at the time of plantation owner Richard Smith Jr.’s death in 1715, reveal that he was breeding horses for sale.  The value of the individual horses however indicates they were work, rather than racing, animals (Cohen, personal communication 2010).

This conclusion is perhaps not surprising, since Thoroughbred breeding and racing did not really get underway in Maryland until the mid-eighteenth century; indeed the first Thoroughbred horse in the American Colonies was imported to Virginia in 1730 (Robertson 1964:16). Continue reading

Baltimore and the Washingtonian Total Abstinence Society


Figure 1.  Temperance Movement cup found in the fill of the privy.

Figure 1. Temperance Movement cup found in the fill of the privy.

Alcoholics Anonymous, the highly successful organization that helps individuals fight alcohol addiction, was founded in Akron, Ohio in 1935 (Anonymous 2015). The organization (commonly known as “AA”) remained small before the 1939 publication of the group’s philosophy and methods of practice. The “Big Book”, as it came to be known, set out the all-important Twelve Steps of Recovery and contained personal stories from group members—another critical component of the organization.  Alcoholics Anonymous has become an international organization; in 2012, AA Census estimated that there were 114,642 groups and 2,131,549 members (S., Arthur, 2014).

This English-made ceramic teacup (Figure 1), dating to the second quarter of the nineteenth century and found in a Baltimore privy (Basalik and Payne 1982), is a tangible reminder that overuse of alcohol is not just a modern-day problem.  The cup contains a printed design of a man and woman flanking a shield-shaped motif from which sprouts an oak tree. A banner above the heads of the figures proclaims “Firm as an Oak”, while banners beneath their feet state “Be Thou Faithful Unto Death”.  The male and female each appear to be holding flags, although these portions of the cup are missing. Complete vessels suggest that the flags would have read “Sobriety” (male) and “Domestic Comfort (female).

The cup’s motif, sometimes referred to as “The Teetotal Coat of Arms”, symbolizes the moral reform movement that supported abstinence from alcoholic beverages. This crusade, aimed at the working class, was popular in both Britain and the United States in the nineteenth century (Smith 1993).    Continue reading

Benjamin Banneker – Renaissance Man


Note from the author:  I would like to thank Justine Schaeffer, Naturalist/Director at the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum for reading a draft of this blog and correcting several errors.

Figure 1.  Ground glass lens and slate pencil fragments recovered during excavations of the Banneker homestead.  Photograph courtesy of Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory.

Figure 1. Ground glass lens and slate pencil fragments recovered during excavations of the Banneker homestead. Photograph courtesy of Maryland Archaeological Conservation Laboratory.

Sometimes artifacts that aren’t all that impressive in appearance turn out to have really interesting histories.  The circular fragment of glass in Figure 1 is a ground lens from a telescope or similar optical instrument.  The objects surrounding the lens are slate pencils, used for marking on slate tablets.  What makes these artifacts notable is that they were excavated from the eighteenth-century home of Benjamin Banneker (Hurry 2002).  A self-taught astronomer and mathematician, Banneker is known as America’s first African-American man of science.  He was born in 1731 to free parents in Baltimore County, Maryland and grew up on a small farm in present-day Oella (18BA282).

Taught to read and write by his grandmother, an English woman who married a former slave, Banneker later attended a small Quaker school (Bedini 1972:39).   As an adult, Banneker became friends with George Ellicott, son of a nearby land and mill owner.  The Ellicotts were Quakers who contracted with the Banneker family to provide their mill workers with produce.  Although twenty-nine years Banneker’s junior, George Ellicott shared many of Banneker’s   interests.  Continue reading

1652 Susquehannock Treaty


Note from author:  I would like to acknowledge the assistance of Ed Chaney, Deputy Director of the MAC Lab and Dr. Julia A. King, St. Mary’s College of Maryland in the preparation of this blog. Any errors are my own.

Figure 1.Tulip shaped tobacco pipe from the Pine Bluff site. Tobacco had social and spiritual significance for native peoples and in some cultures, stone pipes were used in treaty ceremonies.

Figure 1. Tulip shaped tobacco pipe from the Pine Bluff site. Tobacco had social and spiritual significance for native peoples and in some cultures, stone pipes were used in treaty ceremonies.

This week’s Maryland artifact is a tobacco pipe recovered in the 1970s during an excavation at the Pine Bluff site (18WC20) near modern-day Salisbury in Wicomico County.  The pipe, made from fired clay, is in a shape associated with the Susquehannock Indians and often described as a “tulip” pipe.  Other materials found during the excavation, including gun parts, glass pharmaceutical bottle fragments and English ceramics, suggest that some components of this possible village site post-dated English contact (Marshall 1977).

By the time of English colonization, the Eastern Shore had been home to Maryland’s native peoples for at least 13,000 years (Rountree and Davidson 1997:20). Archaeological surveys have revealed evidence of short-term camps, villages and places where resources were procured and processed.  The abundant natural resources of the Eastern Shore—fish, shellfish, wild game and wild plants—made this area a favorable place to live. Continue reading

Chinese Americans in Early Twentieth-Century Baltimore


Figure 1.  The two center safety pins with stamped numbers marked net bags in commercial laundries and were used to track individual orders.  The smaller open pins surrounding the safety pins were probably used to pin paper tags on finished clothing.  The object t the top center is a soapstone pencil, used to mark stains.

Figure 1. The two center safety pins with stamped numbers marked net bags in commercial laundries and were used to track individual orders. The smaller open pins surrounding the safety pins were probably used to pin paper tags on finished clothing. The object to the top center is a soapstone pencil, used to mark stains.

During the 1980 excavation of the Federal Reserve site (18BC27), archaeologists uncovered the remains of a stoneware drainpipe that was clogged during the 1920s with debris from a commercial laundry.  When the pipe was broken open by earthmoving equipment, it was found to have filled over time with artifacts set in a concreted matrix of iron corrosion. Among the artifacts recovered from the pipe were laundry bag net pins—the two odd looking safety pins with the stamped numbers seen in the photograph to the left.  Since these large brass safety pins were rustproof, they could be attached to the net bags that separated individual orders in the washing machines. The solid flat heads were stamped with number designations that could be used to track bagged laundry to specific individuals. These pins are still being manufactured today for use in commercial laundries. They were just a few of the large number of commercial laundry-related artifacts found in the pipe.
Continue reading