Thomas Dyott’s Selfie, 1826-Style


flask 2

Benjamin Franklin

In  April 2015, this blog featured a tea cup decorated with a motif that supported the nineteenth-century temperance movement in the United States. To read go to Maryland History by the Objects Archives. The object that is the subject of this current post had a decidedly more complex message with regards to alcohol.

The pale green pint flask was found in a privy filled sometime between 1830 and 1860 at the Schifferstadt Site (18FR134) in Frederick County, Maryland. Molded in a horseshoe shape, the flask was manufactured around 1826 by the Kensington Glass Works of Philadelphia.  One side of the bottle features the bust of one of Philadelphia’s most famous residents, Benjamin Franklin, with the inscription “WHERE LIBERTY DWELLS THERE IS MY COUNTRY”.  The reverse side shows a likeness of Thomas W. Dyott, encircled by his name.  Figural flasks like this one were produced in great numbers in the second and third quarters of the nineteenth century and often honor historical heroes and contemporary celebrities (Palmer 1993:385). Continue reading

Fort Frederick – Frontier Outpost in Washington County


washington-county-bone-buttons

Bone buttons and button blanks from Fort Frederick.  Photo:  MAC Lab

In the mid-1750s, the Maryland frontier was a place of uncertainty and fear as the threat of war loomed large. French expansion from the north into the Ohio River Valley was at odds with Britain’s claims to control of the North American colonies as it spread ever-westward.  By the 1740s, British had begun trading with Native Americans in the Ohio Valley, infringing on previously-established French trade relationships. Tensions eventually erupted into armed conflict in May of 1754, with French forces defeating George Washington during a dispute over control of the French Fort Duquesne.  Several additional defeats the following year led the British to officially declare war on France in 1756 (Cowley and Parker 1996). The French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years’ War) ended in British victory in 1763 with the French ceding New France east of the Mississippi to Great Britain.

Fort Frederick, located in Maryland’s Washington County, was built as an English stronghold during the French and Indian War. Serving primarily as a staging area for the British, the fort did not see any battles during the war, although provincial troops from Virginia and North Carolina, county militia groups and a company of royal regulars were garrisoned there for frontier duty.  In 1763 the fort was occupied briefly, both by troops and nearby residents seeking protection during the Pontiac Rebellion. During the American Revolution, captured British troops were imprisoned at the fort (Fort Frederick 2017).  The fort was eventually abandoned altogether and the land sold and farmed.  Today, the fort walls and some of the buildings have been reconstructed to their 1758 appearance and it serves as a state park. Continue reading

Keeping it Fizzy for Over a Century: the Crown Cap Closure


oxon-hill-cork

Figure 1.  Dessicated cork from Oxon Hill Manor (18PR175). Photo courtesy MAC Lab.

Baltimore has been home to a number of important inventions over the last several centuries; among them rubber surgical gloves, telephone poles and the Ouija board.  Perhaps few of these innovations have had as widespread of an influence as the crown cap closure.  Invented in 1890 and patented in 1892 by William Painter as a device for capping carbonated beverage bottles, crown caps became one of the world’s first successful disposable products.  In his patent application, Painter stated “… I have devised metallic sealing-caps embodying certain novel characteristics which render them highly effective and so inexpensive as to warrant throwing them away after a single use thereof..” (US Patent Office 1890). Continue reading

Rocket’s Red Glare – The Battle of Baltimore and the Birth of the Star Spangled Banner


12 pounder

Figure 1.  A 12 pound solid shot found during dredging in the Patapsco River near Fort McHenry.

Resting for many years deep in the silt at the bottom of the Patapsco River, adjacent to Baltimore’s Fort McHenry, this 12 pound cannonball’s underwater fate belies its brief moment of glory. For this cannonball was fired during the momentous battle that led to the genesis of our country’s national anthem.

We all know the story from our elementary school days. Francis Scott Key, a Maryland-born lawyer, was inspired by the sight of the U. S. flag that flew over Fort McHenry during the September 1814 Battle of Baltimore.  Although British shells rained down relentlessly for 25 hours, the fort held (Lineberry 2007). Key, watching the battle throughout the night from about eight miles away, was relieved to see in “the dawn’s early light” the American flag flying above the fort – a sign of American victory.  Later that morning, Key penned a poem he entitled “The Defence of Fort McHenry.” Within a month, it had been published in at least nineteen American newspapers (NMAH 2016). Key himself set the poem to music, using a popular English melody written around 1775 and entitled “To Anacreon in Heaven”.  The first documented public performance of Key’s work set to music occurred on October 19, 1814 at the Holiday Street Theater in Baltimore (SI 2016).  The song was later retitled “The Star Spangled Banner”.  Although it was a popular patriotic song throughout the nineteenth century, “The Star Spangled Banner” did not become our country’s national anthem until 1931.

Ft._Henry_bombardement_1814

Figure 2.  A View of the Bombardment of Fort McHenry.  Print by J. Bower, Philadelphia, 1816.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort McHenry. 

 

Continue reading

The Maryland Jockey Club and the Introduction of Organized Thoroughbred Racing in North America


Iron stirrup recovered from the stable (1711-1730 context) at the Smith St. Leonard site (18CV91).

Iron stirrup recovered from the stable (1711-1730 context) at the Smith St. Leonard site (18CV91).

May and June bring the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing—the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes—and Maryland is proud to claim the Preakness as its own.

Horse racing has a long and storied history in Maryland and this stirrup from the Smith St. Leonard Site (18CV91), a 1711-1754 tobacco plantation in Calvert County, is representative of the state’s long history with horses. This site contains remains of the only known eighteenth-century stable (c. 1711-1730) in Maryland, from which this stirrup was recovered. Estate details from the inventory, taken at the time of plantation owner Richard Smith Jr.’s death in 1715, reveal that he was breeding horses for sale.  The value of the individual horses however indicates they were work, rather than racing, animals (Cohen, personal communication 2010).

This conclusion is perhaps not surprising, since Thoroughbred breeding and racing did not really get underway in Maryland until the mid-eighteenth century; indeed the first Thoroughbred horse in the American Colonies was imported to Virginia in 1730 (Robertson 1964:16). Continue reading

Maryland’s Fishing Industry


Bone fishhook from Everhart Rockshelter.

Bone fishhook from Everhart Rockshelter.

Returning home by air from a recent trip to Michigan, I was once again struck by the abundant waterways that bisect our little state. The Susquehanna, Potomac, Choptank, Patapsco and Patuxent are the major state rivers that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Overall, between Virginia and Maryland, more than 100,000 streams, creeks and rivers wind through the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Chesapeake Bay Program 2014). These waterways are the source of the fish and shellfish that have made the words “Maryland” and “seafood” all but synonymous.

The thought of Maryland’s fishing industry is likely to bring up images of commercial vessels with trawl nets or sports fishermen hauling in citation weight rockfish from the back of a charter boat. But this week’s artifact, a diminutive carved bone fish hook from the Everhart Rockshelter (18FR4) in Frederick County, reminds us that fishing has long been an important part of Maryland’s past (Figure 1). This rockshelter, which was excavated by Spencer Geasey in the early 1950s (Geasey 1993), was occupied for thousands of years, all through the Archaic (7500 B.C. – 1000 B.C.) and Woodland periods (1000 B.C. – A.D. 1600). One of the rockshelter residents must have used this fish hook to catch dinner from nearby Catoctin Creek. Continue reading

Richard Bennett III – Colonial Tycoon


Figure 1: 18th-century ceramics from the Bennett’s Chapel site.

Figure 1: 18th-century ceramics from the Bennett’s Chapel site.

Moderator’s note:  This week’s blog entry was written by Adam Oster.   Adam is a graduating senior at Patuxent High School in Lusby, Maryland.  He will be attending the US Naval Academy next semester.  He started his internship at the Maryland Archaeological Conservation Lab in March, 2014.  

For my internship at Jefferson Patterson Park’s MAC Lab, I was assigned the job of cleaning and labeling artifacts from a site on Bennett’s Point in Queen Anne’s County. The artifacts came from the area in and around the ruins of Bennett’s Chapel, which is the burial place of Richard Bennett III, one of the richest men in colonial history. Many of the artifacts were from later time periods, but the few early 18th-century artifacts which I cleaned included pottery shards, a few of which mated to each other like puzzle pieces. When I was asked to write this blog post, the staff at the MAC Lab suggested that I research the background of Mr. Bennett. So, once I finished labeling all of the artifacts, I began to look at pieces of history.

Richard Bennett was one of the first tycoons ever. His entire life, he purchased acres upon acres of land whenever the opportunity presented itself. By his death, he owned 23,000 acres, one of the only colonial merchant fleets, and the Wye Mill (famous for the Wye Oak, which was only 160 years old at the time). His influence was felt across the entirety of the Maryland Eastern Shore.

Mr. Bennett did not own any land in Calvert County, yet there are interesting connections which tie this millionaire to Calvert

Figure 2: Artist’s conception of the Smith house where Elizabeth Bennett lived.  Painting by Tim Scheirer.

Figure 2: Artist’s conception of the Smith house where Elizabeth Bennett lived. Painting by Tim Scheirer.

County, to the MAC Lab at Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum, and even to a house two miles from my own. Buried next to Richard Bennett is his wife, Elizabeth Rousby (I will try not to make this post a list of genealogies). Elizabeth was the daughter of Barbara Morgan and John Rousby, and her childhood home was located on Rousby Hall Road in southern Calvert County, barely two miles from my own home and my high school, and thus Mr. Bennett is tied to my neighborhood. His connections reach further still. Even when I am driving from school to the MAC Lab, I am driving toward the history of Richard Bennett. When Elizabeth was very young, her father died and her mother remarried to Richard Smith Jr. Elizabeth moved with her mother to Mr. Smith’s residence, located on the land that is now Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum. The Smith house site, now known as “King’s Reach,” was excavated by JPPM archaeologists in the 1980s. Elizabeth was very young when her family moved, so the Smith residence could be where Richard Bennett visited and courted her. As Richard Bennett’s wife, Elizabeth Rousby was influential in her husband’s career. All of the land on Bennett’s Point, including that on which the chapel and the Bennett house resided, was inherited by Elizabeth Rousby from her maternal aunt. The chapel where Richard and Elizabeth are buried can also be credited to Elizabeth and her side of the family; Elizabeth’s aunt asked for the chapel to be built as a part of her last will and testament.

Today, Richard Bennett is mostly forgotten, and his fortune was largely divided at the time of his death. What information I was able to garner about Bennett shares similarities with the artifacts from his chapel. What I learned of him needed to be pieced together from multiple sources, just as the shards were pieced together. What I learned about archeology from my internship is that history must be pieced together just like its artifacts.